Civil and industrial constructions
The civil, industrial and farm buildings or constructions shelter people, other beings and human activity from bad weather( blizzard, frost, wind, rain, burning sun, and so on) making possible the adaption to the geographical environment that is so varied and with so different climates.
Engineering constructions are every other constructions, ways of communication on land and on water, hydraulic and underground structures, electricity transmission lines, and so on.
Factors influencing the creation of the constructions
Any construction must satisfy a number of requirements summarized in three essential factors, which compete with their creation, design and composition.
- The human factor – it is necessary to achieve comfortable conditions for human activity, for instance conditions like: temperature, humidity, lighting, noise, and so on. These depend on the type of the activity that is performing in the construction.
- The human activity factor– which requires functional composition of the construction, so as to satisfy the requirements imposed by the type of the activity. It is not the same to build a housing construction, a construction for automobile production or a locomotive depot.
- The nature factor– involves all the actions resulting from the interaction construction-environment concerning: the degree of seismicity of the area, the intensity of climate actions (wind, snow, rain, rime, and so on. ), the quality of the foundation soil, the level of groundwater , the aggression of the groundwater, and so on.
All of these factors were formed over time in “laws” of construction, in the form of: provisional technical instructions, technical instructions, design manuals, design rules, technical regulations, and so on.